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Full text of "[untitled] The Journal of Political Economy (1909-07-01), page 476"

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is one of the most interesting. Here we have an account of the efforts of 
Philadelphia and Baltimore to secure the trade of the Susquehanna, and of 
these towns and New York to capture that of the Middle West. This competition 
was active in the days of canals, and was intensified when the construction of 
railroads threatened to deprive New York of the advantage given her by the 
Erie canal. But not only was there rivalry between the seaboard cities, but 
Troy and Albany, Nashville and Chattanooga, Cincinnati and Louisville, not to 
mention other places, fought vigorously for rail connections in order to pre- 
serve their commercial lives. These conflicting interests, stimulated by the 
persuasive appeals of railroad promoters, led naturally to local and state aid, 
which took the form of subsidies, grants of lands, subscriptions, exemptions, 
and the like. The authors have ransacked the reports of state officers, the files 
of contemporary papers, the testimony before and proceedings of official bodies, 
the statutes of the different states, and other sources in order to secure trust- 
worthy data as to the forms and amount of this aid, and have been able to 
condense the result of much laborious research into convenient form. Finally, 
they describe the part which the national government took in facilitating the 
construction of numerous enterprises of which the Pacific railroads were the 
most important. All this treatment is detailed, specific, and useful. 

Besides the chapters which have been mentioned there is some dis- 
cussion of railroad promotion in general and a good critical bibliography. The 
book is distinctly serviceable, and can be recommended. 

Stuart Daggett 

Harvard University 

Wealth and Want. A Study in Living Contrasts and Social Problems. By 
W. B. Noethrup. London : Francis Griffiths, 1909. 8vo, pp. 334. 
5-r. net. 

The author of this work, leading up to the theory that abolition of private 
property in land is the only way of social justice, presents a series of con- 
trasts, in words and in pictures, designed to show the gulf that is fixed between 
the lives of the very rich and the lives of the very poor. Eccentric in his 
urgency and naive in his implications that land-ownership is the source of 
every evil, he is obviously earnest and sincere. One must dispute the conclu- 
siveness of the pictorial arguments presented ; but undeniably such contrasts 
as these photographs reveal set one seriously to thinking. 

Unemployment: a Problem in Industry. By W. H. Beveridge. London 

and New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1909. 8vo, pp. xvi+317. 
Problems of Unemployment in the London Building Trades. By Norman 

B. Dearle, with an Introduction by L. L. Price. London : J. M. Dent 

& Co. 8vo, pp. xviii+215. 2 s - 6d. 

It is one of the encouraging signs of the times that intelligent people are 
beginning to question the inevitableness of unemployment as a matter-of-course 
accompaniment of our competitive industrial system. These two books will be 
cordially welcomed by students of the labor problem everywhere, coming as